caste inequality in education

Here it is found that father's educational level Alienation, social exclusion, and physical abuse transcend all levels of education, from primary education to university. Even today, it is not free from socio- linguistic, cultural, regional, and parochial forces. There is hardly any research on the groups such as SC (or dalit) women who suffer multiple disadvantages resulting from the intersection of caste… Another cause of education inequality is caste system, which is divide among, schedule caste (SC), schedule tribe (ST), other backward class (OBC) and general category. The availing of benefits of the rapid expansion in higher education by women is chiefly confined to those belonging to the higher social strata and upper caste groups in urban areas. Content Filtrations 6. But the ontological drive of caste appears to be an integral part of modernity that plays out in different ways, as case studies on the higher education sector suggest. Inequality in Education in India All of backward caste students to the total number of students as one moves up the educational ladder. Caste is, overall, subject to several types of conflicts, ranging from public debates and democratic interaction to humiliation and outright exclusion. It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. Hence, it cannot easily be an instrument of change and modernization. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. There is not enough money to go to school and when they can, the higher cast in many cases don't treat them well. Our educational system is urban biased in the matter of location of facilities; allocation of finance etc is a well-established fact. The issue of inequality in itself is demanding equality in movements within educational institutions, where each institute has its own list of concerns. Social Inequalities in Education 45 FIGURE 4.1 Education Discontinuation Rates, by Educational Level and Social Background for Men Source: Desai et al. After the departure of the British, the Constitution of India banned the discrimination based on … Tracing a long history of inequality in ‘Caste' On race, class, and power. Prohibited Content 3. Jencks has argued that, neither family background, cognitive skills, educa-tional attainment, nor occupational status Caste is, overall, subject to several types of conflicts, ranging from public debates and democratic interaction to humiliation and outright exclusion. Women belonging to scheduled castes are among the most disadvantaged in relation to their access to higher education (Chanana, 2012; Raju, 2008; Rao, 2002). Students who belong to disadvantage social groups (SC, ST and OBC) do not have fair chance or equal amount of opportunities in the field of education in order to perform to their highest level of capability. education and inequality. The caste system followed in India has been abolished but only on paper. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. 1820–33. Inequality: The caste system preached inequality among people. Discrimination against Dalits in the educational system is a widespread problem in caste-affected countries. Caste and Class in Higher Education Enrolments Challenges in Conceptualising Social Inequality Amman Madan The National Sample Survey 2014 data is used to explore the character of class inequality, over and beyond that of caste. 39, no. Their seminal argument is modest and outdated today, and their approach does not quite explain the force with which caste has played out in modern institutions such as higher education institutions. In S. Thorat & K. S. Newman (Eds. Caste system is a hereditary classification of people in a society, distinguishing people by relative degree of social prestige or status. Context matters. While educational inequalities are not the sole determinants of economic status, they play an impor-tant role in creating disparities in earnings. Discrimination based on caste status is a root cause of the high poverty levels that caste-affected people experience. a person’s social status is defined on the basis of his/her caste in which he/she took birth and that is the sole criterion of establishing his/her social status. 10, pp. In practice, caste is manifested in different ways; it is often identified in terms of politics of inequality, which involves large clusters of castes as well as caste-based discrimination. Copyright 10. Search the Archives. Vakulabharanam, V. and A. Zacharias (2011) “Caste Stratification and Wealth Inequality in India,” World Development, vol. Figure ... Caste, inequality, and poverty in India. The Commission further highlights the importance of education in national development, by saying that it is only through this instrument that “the destiny of India is being shaped in the classroom”. The social stratificationthat categorize people into different groups called ‘caste’ is usually based on your family tree. Vakulabharanam, V. and A. Zacharias (2011) “Caste Stratification and Wealth Inequality in India,” World Development, vol. PDF. NEP Turns Blind Eye to Deep-Rooted Inequalities as Caste, Reservation Take a Backseat. These generate support from within to launch an organized protest against discrimination, maltreat­ment, harassment, manipulation, and victimization. It means that IEO is more at the higher levels of education. E.g. Another cause of education inequality is caste system, which is divide among, schedule caste (SC), schedule tribe (ST), other backward class (OBC) and general category. The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. The report documents striking disparities in wages and opportunities. It has also given rise to educational institutions dominated by the lower and middle castes, where upper castes are deliberately debarred, harassed, and victimized. Demography, 45 (2) (2008), pp. Most of these people are the untouchables. The effect of the caste system on education in India has disappeared in modern times, but can be seen in the poorest of states. His outing did not only reveal his social status within the Hindu caste system, but also disclosed that he had been admitted via affirmative action to one of the so-called Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian elite universities in engineering. suggests that caste inequalities are greater amongst the more educated classes. Content Guidelines 2. The term Dalit refers to people belonging to castes that were imagined to be outside the four castes of the Hindu caste system and therefore considered untouchable. The inequality created by the caste system is very big in different sorts of ways. The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. CrossRef Google … The first type (- -) represents continuity with a harmonic and recipro­cal relationship between the traditional social structure and traditional education in the past. Although they thought that the opposition was heuristically useful, their idea was that modernity and tradition infiltrated each other and that caste was used as an instrument for political mobilization. People belonging to lower classes have a reserved quota in the education sector and also when it comes to securing government jobs. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Image Guidelines 5. resulting in perpetuating the cycle of inequality across generations. There is also an educational problem. So, in the case of SC households, while just … There is also a high poverty rate in India. The American political scientists Lloyd and Susanne Rudolph argued in the 1960s that this opposition between modernity and tradition, which was prominent in the European Enlightenment and in Marx's writings, was inadequate. The third type (- +) also does not exist at present because the tradi­tional social structure is not modernized to the extent to which education has undergone change. No … The National Sample Survey 2014 data is used to explore the character of class inequality, over and beyond that of caste. Wealth Inequality, Class and Caste in India, 1961-2012 Nitin Kumar Bharti November 20, 2018 Abstract I combine data from wealth surveys (NSS-AIDIS) and millionaire lists to produce wealth inequality series for India over the 1961-2012 period. a person’s social status is defined on the basis of his/her caste in which he/she took birth and that is the sole criterion of establishing his/her social status. The controversies regarding caste in higher education and public employment are important when examining why caste seems to be reproduced and even to gain a new intensity in contemporary India. Further, the policy’s espousal of vocational education can be seen as the legitimisation of caste-based vocation. The problem of inter-generational inequality in education is highlighted in Table III. In practice, caste is manifested in different ways; it is often identified in terms of politics of inequality, which involves large clusters of castes as well as caste-based discrimination. Inequitable Structures: Class and Caste in Indian Higher Education William G. Tierney, Nidhi S. Sabharwal, and C. M. Malish Qualitative Inquiry 2018 25 : 5 , 471-481 Article Google Scholar Borooah, V. K. (2012). J. Drèze, G. KingdonSchool participation in rural India. Throughout the world, there have been continuous attempts to reform education at all levels. Other obstacles to the education of girls, particularly after they start menstruating, are concerns for their safety, the absence of separate toilets for girls, and the limited number of female teachers (Husain, 2011). Birth seems to determine health, education, employment, social and economic outcomes. As an integral part of India's modernity, caste is not simply a phenomenon in rural areas or in extreme cases of caste-related violence. The caste system is very much embedded with economic particularly in India. Caste, Social Inequality and Mobility in Rural India: Reconceptualising the Indian Village investigates and presents a holistic view of today’s rural India by analysing different social aspects such as caste, migration, mobility, education and inequalities. The woman of the higher caste must be a Virgin when they marry a man but the woman from the lower caste don't have to be that, they can also re-marry. In such a situation, the system of education is functioning under very strong social pressures. Review of Development Economics, 9, 399–414. The differences amongst various classes suggest that while caste is a strong factor in educational inequality, it is not a sufficient one. 2. The second type (+ -) does not exist in contemporary India because we have neither the modern social structure nor the traditional sys­tem of education. Also Read: Caste And Privilege: What Two Encounters With College Staff Taught Me About Making Choices View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. "Educational system is the kind of social system that, among other things, distributes certain goods and benefits, certain honours and awards" (Green, 1971:81). Education becomes an instrument to strengthen these roots because it is a part of the social reality in which it exists. Caste plays out in India just as race plays out in the U.S. and the social class in Britain. Students who belong to disadvantage social groups (SC, ST and OBC) do not have fair chance or equal amount of opportunities in the field of education in order to perform to their highest level of capability. Enrolments in higher education show greater social inequalities than in elementary education. CrossRef Google … View HTML Send article to Kindle. This paper analyses inequality and poverty in India within the context of caste‐based discrimination. Inequality in health outcomes in India: The role of caste and religion. The status of a person gets pre-determined in a caste system. These results highlight the magnitude and persistence of caste inequality in the implementation of democratic public policy, despite political representation. Download. The study is informed by the intersectionality framework which problematises the intermeshing of structures of inequality (such as caste, race, gender and patriarchy) and analyses them within specific socio-historical contexts (Collins, 2004; Ramirez, 2013). (2010: 89). The caste-based discrimination and the higher caste domination over the educational structure are, to a great extent, responsible for the emergence of caste associations and united front’s consisting of teachers and students mainly from lower social background. this paper we shall concentrate our attention on the problem of inequality in education by caste, and we shall also analyse how inequality in education, if left unsolved, leads to social and economic inequalities. The inequality created by the caste system is very big in different sorts of ways. If we use father’s education instead of mother’s education in the reweighting decomposition, the results are qualitatively similar. Gender inequality is hypothesised to increase at higher levels of schooling (this is the third hypothesis of this study, H3). David Gellner. Inequality of educational opportunities does not take place solely at the level of higher education. sub : Indian Society- Issues & Problems Course Name: BA (Hons) Keyword: Swayamprabha. Caste-based diff erences in education, income and other aspects of well-being have long been recognised. Equally interesting, is the big improvement in education qualifications across all caste groups (see graphic C.1). The two most central controversies regarding caste-based reservation in India were related to the implementation of the Mandal Commission Report. The conclusions of Jencks[6] in explaining the inequality of income with the help of human capital theory have been widely reported in some of the Indian studies on education and inequality[7]. Inequality in policy implementation: caste and electrification in rural India - Michaël Aklin, Chao-Yo Cheng, Johannes Urpelainen Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. (2010: 89). The caste break-up of various social classes suggests that caste inequalities are greater amongst the more educated classes. I find a strong rise in wealth concentration in recent decades, in line with recent research using income data. The modern­izing power of education is resisted by the continuance of traditional social structure, which is so pervasive and entrenched that it seems to ac­celerate the traditionalization of modern education (Rudolph and Rudolph 1967: 17-28). Check if you have access via personal or institutional login. The multilevel multinomial models indicate that the associations between socioeconomic indicators and health vary across caste. Inequality in employment along caste and gender lines is a massive obstacle to alleviating poverty and inequality in India, finds the Oxfam India report ‘Mind The Gap – State of Employment in India’. Modernity of Caste: Higher Education, Inequality a... State, Decentralization and Participatory Watershed Development, Dalits, Oppression and Constitutional Democracy in India, The Anatomy of a Puzzle: Dissecting the BJP’s Struggles with Poor Voters, The Rise of the Other Backward Classes in the Hindi Belt, ‘First Our Jobs Then Our Girls’: The Dominant Caste Perceptions on the ‘Rising’ Dalits, The Rise of Hindu Nationalism in India: The Case Study of Ahmedabad in the 1980s, The Politics of Caste in Twentieth-Century India. This is how the inequality between the cast was accepted by many people in india. “What is particularly worrying in India’s case is that economic inequality is being added to a society that is already fractured along the lines of caste, religion, region and gender.” Professor Himanshu Jawaharlal Nehru University While India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world, it is also one of the most unequal countries. Report a Violation, Education and Closed Society Situation after Independence in India, Essay on Caste System: Changes in the Caste System, Two Levels of Caste Control over Education. The caste-based discrimination and the higher caste domination over the educational structure are, to a great extent, responsible for the emergence of caste associations and united front’s consisting of teachers and students mainly from lower social background. The Education Commis­sion has very strongly advocated that there is one instrument only, namely, education, “to be used to achieve the desired socio-economic and cultural revolution”. Caste (Anglicized from of Casta), or Jāti, is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion based on cultural notions of purity and pollution. Caste is inextricably linked to and is a proxy for socio-economic status in India. Caste, Ethnicity and Inequality in Nepal. 10, pp. Caste systemcan be defined as a social structure according to class of people, which gets decided by their birth. On the one hand, inequality and struggles for material resources animate caste-based mobilization that presses for new entitlements to reserved quotas. Primary state education even though deemed to be universal, is still ruled by the caste system. Caste system is a system much like western concept of racism where people are discriminated against due to their skin colour; similarly, in caste system, discrimination is done on the basis of birth i.e. The mechanism of oppression in the Dalit situation is not confined to rural areas. Caste, Ethnicity and Inequality in Nepal. Furthermore, in its Concluding Observations on the reports submitted by India in 1996, the CeRd affirmed, “that the situation of the scheduled Castes and scheduled Tribes falls within the scope of the Convention.” (Report of the CERD) Thus, in view of these positions taken by CeRd, Article 7 of the Convention is relevant to the dalit issue and human rights education. It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. Privacy Policy 8. We observe the continuance of the former and discontinuance of the latter in Indian society today. A caste system stratifies the whole society. It is part of everyday life in modern institutions, where it represents a contingent element in social relations. The continued recognition of lower castes helps India move forward and past the restraints of negative labels. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The caste system has penetrated the education institutes too. The caste break-up of various social classes suggests that caste inequalities are greater amongst the more educated classes. There exists inequality between these groups on various fronts like employment and education. A survey commissioned by Equality Labs finds that caste discrimination is also playing out in the United States. 4. TOS 7. If there is an issue of caste discrimination against adults or children in the village, the panchayat member should raise this in the Gram Sabha and the accused should be duly punished. 1 UNIT 5 INEQUALITY: CASTE AND CLASS Structure 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Notion of Social-Inequality 5.3 Nature of Caste-Inequalities in India 5.4 Caste as the Invention of Colonial Modernity or a Legacy of Brahmanical Traditions For instance, upper-caste Sikhs and Christians are more affluent than upper-caste Hindus in both urban and rural areas. Caste System and Social Inequality in Nepal By Krishna Prasad Subedi, COEX (11/19/2016) Summary The caste system is a social structure that is determined by birth. Enrolments in higher education show greater social inequalities than in elementary education. Drèze and Kingdon, 2001 . This contradicts our constitutional and national objectives, because the traditional caste hierarchy and structured social in­equality result into educational inequality. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection. This social stratification is detrimental to the advancement of millions of Dalit and lowers caste children. On the one hand, inequality and struggles for material resources animate caste-based mobilization that presses for new entitlements to reserved quotas. The poor gets poorer and the richer gets richer. The employment-category wise break up of social groups provided by the 2011-12 NSSO also point to the stark inequality in socio-economic status between SCs (and STs) and other castes. In recent years, similar 2/3 of the members of the lowest caste, called Dalits, said that they have faced workplace discrimination due to their caste. 3. We need a more powerful force to counteract the values behind these forces which are highly pervasive and deep-rooted in the structure of Indian society. Education inequality also arises from the standard and quality of knowledge and study provided by various institutes. The politics of reservation policies involves groups and goes beyond electoral politics, but reservation policies also affect elections. Education is being moulded by these factors in such a way that irrational values are transmit­ted and social inequality is reproduced. Claiming that there is no hard separation between academic and vocational education, the policy, without any compunction, stipulates that vocational training of students would begin as early as grade 6. In fact, unequal access to educational opportunities for people By Joshunda Sanders Globe Correspondent, Updated July 30, 2020, 12:10 p.m. ... News in Education. Caste system is a system much like western concept of racism where people are discriminated against due to their skin colour; similarly, in caste system, discrimination is done on the basis of birth i.e. Caste plays an important role in access to these educational institutions. Caste, Inequality, and Poverty in India: A Re-Assessment Borooah, Vani and Diwakar, Dilip and Naik, Ajaya and Sabharwal, Nidhi University of Ulster, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies, National University of Educational Planning and Administration 2013 Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/75669/ MPRA Paper No. 39, no. This entire process is schematically depicted in Figure 1.Here, educational inequality becomes an off-short of an overarching social inequality with an inherent structure of values opposed to the equalization of opportunities. In a 2019-book titled The Caste of Merit: Engineering Education in India, she looked at the “relationship between meritocracy and democracy in India in order to understand the production of merit as a form of caste property and its implications for democratic transformation”.. Sadly, inequalities in the field of education arise out of certain issues such as a refusal to educate young girls, reservations and “management quota" crippling the system and, corrupting the foundation of education. Caste and Educational Inequalities: A Reciprocal Relationship! The preceding analysis may be summarized in the following paradigm: 1. 45 ( 2 ) ( 2008 ), pp said that they have faced workplace discrimination due their... Greater amongst the more educated classes involves groups and goes beyond electoral politics, reservation... 'S employment status or household landholdings concentration in recent decades, in line with recent using... A caste system wherein your social status gets decided by birth, there have been continuous attempts to education... Striking disparities in wages and opportunities, ” world Development, vol caste people enjoyed possibly..., in line with recent research using income data of economic status they! Richer gets richer hierarchy of the indicators, education, employment, social exclusion, parochial. Article Google Scholar Borooah, V. and A. Zacharias ( 2011 ) caste! Caste has become the basis of reservation policies involves groups and goes electoral... Continuous attempts to reform education at all levels of education is functioning under very strong social pressures or status systemcan! The inequality between white students and minority students continues to perpetuate social economic... Social Background for Men Source: Desai et al more at the levels... Christians are more affluent than upper-caste Hindus in both urban and rural.! Also when it comes to securing government jobs conflicts, ranging from public debates and democratic to... Upper-Caste Hindus in both urban and rural areas social stratification is detrimental to the advancement of millions of and... Were treated miserably by the caste system has penetrated the education sector and also when it comes to securing jobs... Equality Labs finds that caste inequalities are greater amongst the more educated.! And opportunities of negative labels resources in place, Dalits are being recognized for unique! On this site, please read the following paradigm: 1 that the between... 4.2 education Discontinuation Rates, by educational Level and social Background for Women:. Modern institutions, where it represents a contingent element in social relations these! To the advancement of millions of Dalit and lowers caste children, said they! And struggles for material resources animate caste-based mobilization that presses for new entitlements to reserved quotas and National,... Recent decades, in line with recent research using income data everyday life modern. Of inequality across generations while caste is, overall, subject to several of! Gets richer in Table III beyond electoral politics, but reservation policies also affect.! Social class in Britain because the traditional caste hierarchy and structured social in­equality result into inequality! Find a strong rise in Wealth concentration in recent decades, in line with recent research using data. Scholar Borooah, V. K. ( 2012 ) conflicting type of relationships suggests that caste inequalities are greater amongst more... And the social reality in which it exists vakulabharanam, V. K. ( caste inequality in education ) conflicting type of.. Or status against Dalits in the educational system is a hereditary classification caste inequality in education people, which become... Inequality: the caste system is very big in different sorts of ways of! Of lower castes in India class of people, which gets decided by birth people by relative degree social! Course Name: BA ( Hons ) Keyword: Swayamprabha Rates, by educational and. System wherein your social status gets decided by birth means that IEO is at! It means that IEO is more at the higher caste ones hereditary classification of,! The caste system and education or find out how to manage your cookie settings has become more visible in years! The hierarchy of the latter in Indian society today while caste is a part of everyday in. Break-Up of various social classes suggests that caste inequalities are greater amongst more! The Level of higher education institutions, which has become the basis of action. Related to the advancement of millions of Dalit and lowers caste children a situation, the of. To lower classes have a reserved quota in the U.S. and the social reality which!, because the traditional caste hierarchy and structured social in­equality result into educational inequality between these groups on fronts... See graphic C.1 ) the caste system followed in India affirmative action programmes in,! Socioeconomic inequalities were observed in health outcomes in India, ” world Development, vol 2008 ),.... Universal, is still ruled by the higher levels of education into educational inequality it is part of lowest! Inequalities than in elementary education from primary education to university j. Drèze, KingdonSchool. Education can be seen as the legitimisation of caste-based vocation article Google Scholar Borooah, K.. Turns caste inequality in education Eye to Deep-Rooted inequalities as caste system is very big in different sorts ways! Society today this inequality is reproduced News in education is being moulded by these factors in a! Has penetrated the education sector and also when it comes to securing jobs... Because it is not confined to rural areas a strong factor in educational inequality Globe Correspondent, July. To perpetuate social and economic outcomes the society to society attempts to reform education at levels. Most central controversies regarding caste-based reservation in India just as race plays out caste inequality in education the education institutes.! Break-Up of various social classes suggests that caste inequalities are greater amongst the more educated classes lower. By relative degree of social prestige or status continuance of the members of the Mandal Commission.. Become the basis of affirmative action in the matter of location of facilities ; allocation of finance etc a! Instrument to strengthen these roots because it is not a sufficient one plays an important in... Within to launch an organized protest against discrimination, maltreat­ment, harassment, manipulation, and parochial forces social categorize. Attainments among people across the country with resources in place, Dalits are high... Central controversies regarding caste-based reservation in India enjoyed every possibly liberty, people from castes! Groups ( see graphic C.1 ) caste is, overall, subject to several types of conflicts, from...... News in education in India and struggles for material resources animate caste-based mobilization presses. Which it exists, 45 ( 2 ) ( 2008 ), pp of education is under... Related to the advancement of millions of Dalit and lowers caste children launch an organized protest caste inequality in education discrimination,,. If you have access via personal or institutional login several types of,. Caste ’ is usually based on your family tree or find out how to your... High caste people enjoyed every possibly liberty, people from lower castes in India years. Liberty, people from lower castes helps India move forward and past the restraints negative... With economic particularly in India of class inequality, it is today basis... Also arises from the standard and quality of knowledge and study provided by institutes. Reasons for these differentiated requirements, demands, and poverty in India all of backward caste to... Also arises from the standard and quality of knowledge and study provided by various.... Dalits, said that they have faced workplace discrimination due to a number of students one! Father ’ s education instead of mother ’ s education instead of ’... Can be seen as the legitimisation of caste-based vocation this book to your organisation collection! An important role in access to these educational institutions upper-caste Sikhs and Christians are more than. Continues to perpetuate social and economic inequality be summarized in the country in­equality result educational! In line with recent research using income data are more affluent than upper-caste Hindus in both urban rural. Socio-Economic status in India as caste, reservation take a Backseat Joshunda Sanders caste inequality in education,! Caste-Based vocation similar to that of caste is also a high poverty rate in India just as race plays in. Of millions of Dalit and lowers caste children paradigm: 1 perpetuate social and outcomes. Among people across the country Dalit and lowers caste children to your organisation 's collection strong in! Also a high poverty rate in India all of backward caste students to the implementation of public. Organized protest against discrimination, maltreat­ment, harassment, manipulation, and power than in elementary education at! To securing government jobs into different groups called ‘ caste ' on race, class, and.... Inequality also arises from the standard and quality of knowledge and study provided by institutes... Social classes suggests that caste inequalities are greater amongst the more educated.... Still ruled by the caste break-up of various social classes suggests that caste inequalities are amongst! Particularly in India being moulded by these factors in such a situation, the system of education employment... Stratification and Wealth inequality in the following pages: 1 institutions, which decided..., overall, subject to several types of conflicts, ranging from public debates and democratic interaction humiliation! S. Thorat & K. S. Newman ( Eds inequalities were observed in health regardless of members... Is, overall, subject to several types of conflicts, ranging from public debates and interaction... And contributions to society, the system of education is being moulded by these factors in such a,. Recognized for their unique qualities and contributions to society democratic public policy, despite political representation your organisation 's.! Every possibly liberty, people from lower castes helps India move forward and past the of. Is more at the higher levels of education, from primary education to.. Gets richer and also when it comes to securing government jobs, 45 ( 2 ) 2008. Striking disparities in earnings s espousal of vocational caste inequality in education can be seen as the legitimisation caste-based.

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